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Bio diesel
Biodiesel is a renewable, biodegradable fuel manufactured domestically from vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled restaurant grease. It is a cleaner-burning replacement for petroleum diesel fuel. Biodiesel meets both the biomass-based diesel and overall advanced biofuel requirement of the Renewable Fuel Standard.

Biodiesel is a liquid fuel often referred to as B100 or neat biodiesel in its pure, unblended form. Like petroleum diesel, biodiesel is used to fuel compression-ignition engines. How well biodiesel performs in cold weather depends on the blend of biodiesel. The smaller the percentage of biodiesel in the blend, the better it performs in cold temperatures. Regular No. 2 diesel and B5 perform about the same in cold weather. Both biodiesel and No. 2 diesel have some compounds that crystallize in very cold temperatures. In winter weather, fuel blenders and suppliers combat crystallization by adding a cold flow improver. For the best cold weather performance, users should work with their fuel provider to ensure the blend is appropriate.

WHAT IS BIODIESEL

  • Biodiesel is a clean burning renewable fuel made using natural vegetable oils and fats.
  • Biodiesel is made through a chemical process which converts oils and fats of natural origin into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Biodiesel IS NOT vegetable oil.
  • Biodiesel is intended to be used as a replacement for petroleum diesel fuel, or can be blended with petroleum diesel fuel in any proportion.
  • Biodiesel does not require modifications to a diesel engine to be used.
  • Biodiesel has reduced exhaust emissions compared to petroleum diesel fuel.
  • Biodiesel has lower toxicity compared to petroleum diesel fuel.
  • Biodiesel is safer to handle compared to petroleum diesel fuel.
  • Biodiesel quality is governed by ASTM D 6751 quality parameters.
  • Biodiesel is biodegradable.
With just over a decade of commercial-scale production, the industry is proud of its careful approach to growth and strong focus on sustainability. Production has increased from about 25 million gallons in the early 2000s to about 1.7 billion gallons advanced biofuel in 2014. This represents a small but growing component of the annual U.S. on-road diesel market of about 35 billion to 40 billion gallons. Consistent with projected feedstock availability, the industry has established a goal of producing about 10 percent of the diesel transportation market by 2022.

Biodiesel is defined as mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats which conform to ASTM D6751 specifications for use in diesel engines. Biodiesel refers to the pure fuel before blending with diesel fuel. Biodiesel blends are denoted as, "BXX" with "XX" representing the percentage of biodiesel contained in the blend (ie: B20 is 20% biodiesel, 80% petroleum diesel). Biodiesel is better for the environment because it is made from renewable resources and has lower emissions compared to petroleum diesel. It is less toxic than table salt and biodegrades as fast as sugar. Produced domestically with natural resources, its use decreases our dependence on imported fuel and contributes to our own economy. Much of the biodiesel fuel industry is comprised of heavy duty farming and construction vehicles such as harvesters, tractors, and large pickup trucks.Biodiesel fuel can also be used in any vehicle with a diesel engine.

Four months after the Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) launched a pilot project with 10 buses operating on bio-diesel, it is prepared to upgrade the project to 15 depots in the coming month and is looking to procure bio-diesel on a large scale in April. In the earlier pilot, 107 buses switched over to a 20 per cent blend of biodiesel (B20), which was found to have had a significant effect on emissions. “The use of bio-diesel reduced pollution by as much as 50 per cent.

The corporation also announced the launch of a pilot project of running a 100 per cent bio-diesel bus, which was retrofitted by Scania and provided to KSRTC for a trial run. This will be the first time such a trial is being run in the country by a State-owned transport corporation. Initially, the bus will be operated within the State.

The main industries in Egypt are agriculture, automotive manufacturing, construction industry, steel manufacturing, cotton cultivation and textile production.
diesel's Physical Characteristics
Specific gravity 0.88
Kinematic viscosity at 40°C 4.0 to 6.0
Cetane number 48 to 65
Higher heating value, Btu/gal ˜127,960
Lower heating value, Btu/gal ˜119,550
Density, lb/gal at 15.5°C 7.3
Carbon, wt% 77
Hydrogen, wt% 12
Oxygen, by dif. wt% 11
Boiling point, °C 315-350
Flash point, °C 100-170
Sulfur, wt% 0.0 to 0.0015
Cloud point, °C -3 to 15
Pour point, °C -5 to 10